Selasa, Maret 31, 2009

BS-02 - Prinsip Kerja Rem Hidrolik

Pada tulisan sebelumnya (BS-01), kita bisa melihat bagian-bagian utama system rem dari sebuah kendaraan penumpang (Sedan). Bagian-bagian utama tersebut antara lain; (1) Brake Pedal, (2) Brake Booster, (3) Master Cylinder, (4) Brake Lines, (5) Disc Brake Assemblies, dan (6) Drum Brake Assemblies. Selain itu, kita juga melihat adanya sebuah system pengereman mekanikal, yaitu Emergency atau Parking Brake.

Gambar 2. Sistem kerja hidrolik pada sebuah sistem pengungkit.

Dalam tulisan BS-02 ini, kita akan membahas prinsip kerja dari system rem hidrolik pada mobil. Prinsip kerja rem hidrolik didasarkan oleh hukum pascal, yang mana memungkinkan kita bisa memberikan gaya yang kecil untuk dapat mengangkat gaya atau beban yang jauh lebih besar, tentu dengan perbandingan luas penampangnya.

Gambar 3. Prinsip kerja rem hidrolik pada mobil.

Gaya kaki dari sopir saat menginjak brake pedal diteruskan oleh fluida melalui master cylinder, kemudian diteruskan ke manifold yang biasanya sekaligus berfungsi sebagai proportional valve ke tiap-tiap roda. Pada roda yang menggunakan disc brake assembly, diteruskan ke caliper untuk mendorong piston, sedangkan jika roda menggunakan drum brake assembly, diteruskan ke wheel cylinder untuk mendorong pistonnya juga. Piston pada disc brake assembly akan menekan brake pads atau material frictions (kampas) sehingga putaran Brake disc (cakram) dapat ditahan karena adanya cengkraman tersebut. Cengkraman ini menghasilkan gesekan dan panas pada material.

Gambar 4. (A)-Proses pengereman pada disc brake assembly, dan
(B)-Proses pengereman pada drum brake assembly.

Sedangkan pada drum brake assembly, piston dalam wheel cylinder akan menekan brake shoes (sepatu rem), dalam hal ini adalah material frictions, sehingga mengenai lining surface pada bagian dalam brake drum dan kemudian putaran roda dapat dikurangi dengan adanya gaya gesekan yang terjadi. Dengan demikian, kecepatan laju kendaraan dapat dikurangi.

Pada kesempatan selanjutnya, kita akan membahas secara detail cara kerja dari masing-masing bagian utama rem sistem hidrolik.

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